Monday, August 24, 2020

Apert Syndrome :: essays research papers fc

Apert Syndrome (AKA Alport disorder) is a hereditary imperfection which can be acquired from a parent who has Apert or a new change. It falls under the expansive grouping of craniofacial/appendage abnormalities. Roughly 1 for each 160,000 to 200,000 live births acquire it. A few side effects that Apert victims have are different heart abandons, ear contaminations, extreme skin inflammation, expanded occurrence of eye wounds, and some more. The skull is rashly melded and incapable to develop typically, and the fingers and toes are combined in fluctuating degrees.      If your youngster gets Apert Syndrome they may have numerous physical imperfections just as a couple of different issues, for example, more slow learning, a congenital fissure, vision issues, and issues with skin inflammation during adolescence. I don’t think Apert Syndrome kids pass on, expecially in light of the fact that you can go Apert through hereditary qualities. A youngster with Apert Syndrome could carry on with an entirely typical life.      The change which causes Apert Syndrome is found on chromosome number 10 called Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2). You have two duplicates of this quality, one from the mother, one from the dad, which is made out of a string of around 2000 of the substance developing obstructs that make the hereditary material called DNA. When Apert Syndrome happens, only one specific structure obstruct in one of these two quality duplicates has been traded for another. The other quality is totally ordinary. The one small change in FGFR2 brings about the physical highlights of Apert Syndrome.      There is no connection between anything the mother does or doesn’t do during her pregnancy to cause Apert. Specialists trust Apert Syndrome happens when a quality transforms from the get-go in the pregnancy. The odds of having a second youngster with Apert are nearly non-existent. In any case on the off chance that one parent has Apert Syndrome there is a half possibility that their youngster will likewise have Apert Syndrome. Also, examines have indicated that Apert happens all the more regularly to babies with more seasoned dads.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

EU Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

EU - Essay Example The flipside of this arrangement has been its affinity for inclining part states to the failure to control passage and habitation inside their domain. In the long run, this has prompted the part states’ attempting to limit to stem the weight that unbridled development of people place on them. The EU and its part states have endeavored to rescue this circumstance by proposing and endorsing laws, for example, mandates, guideline and articles in law, as will be seen forthwith. Initially, it is critical to take note of that even in the face these difficulties, EU has never made any abandonment on the option to free development. Especially, as indicated by Barnard (2007, 23) and Cholewinski (2005, 252), Article 21 (1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU) keeps on making arrangement for EU residents to practice free development. The equivalent applies to Regulation EEC 1612/68 and Regulation EU No 492/2011. In this light, there are as of now more than 2 million EU resid ents who are practicing this right. EU has attempted to determine this difficult that attempts to fit the elements of free development and the weight that goes with it through the issuance of mandates, for example, the Directive 2004/38/EC. The Directive 2004/38/EC for example recognizes the way that free development is owing to residents of the EU or the EEA and the immediate relatives of EU residents. The last capability is significant since it erases the non-direct relatives of EU or EEA from getting to one side. In any case, Directive 2004/38/EC is unmitigated that these relatives must be immediate wards of the EU resident. The Directive 2004/38/EC is likewise significant in exculpating EU part states from the weight of free development since it indicates the individuals who are not able to appreciate the option to free development. For example, the Directive 2004/38/EC precludes those residents who live in their home EU part states yet have not worked in other EU part states. I n this regard, all development by non-EU relatives into the home is dependent upon national law. Once more, Directive 2004/38/EC likewise perceives the privilege of more seasoned EU part states to practice the arrangements provided food for in the transitional game plans. The transitional plans restrains EU citizens’ capacity to move uninhibitedly to work, given that these residents begin from new EU part states, for example, Romania and Bulgaria. The hindrance for this situation can be extended as long as 7 years. It is imperative to take note of that in any event, during this time when there is the inconvenience of this breaking point, residents of the new EU part states are as yet neat for movement all through Europe, along with their non-EU relatives. The essence of the issue in this is while free development isn't limited, the capacity to get to employments is. In this manner, this is a path by which rare financial qualities, for example, work are defended against out of line rivalry and invasion. Once more, note that the Directive 2004/38/EC additionally rejects those residents of non-EEA or non-EU nations who are not joined by individuals from EU/EEA residents from getting to a portion of the benefits that are reached out to EU residents. A portion of these benefits incorporate free and quick issuance of visas; the option to work and play for as long as 90 days before the issuance of visas; changeless habitation of 5 years; and simple option to remain in the EU nation longer, should the EU resident be working, learning. For this situation, during applications, Directive 2004/3

Thursday, July 23, 2020

concentrations, specializations, and co-curricular programs (oh my) COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

concentrations, specializations, and co-curricular programs (oh my) COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Let’s face it SIPA (School of International and Public Affairs) is a land of acronyms starting with the name itself. As if that didn’t make things confusing enough, every policy school has its own language when it comes to courses of study. Applicants frequently call the office wondering if they concentrate in Latin America or specialize in social policy (the answer is no to both, in my opinion) so I thought it might be useful to walk you through the difference between SIPA’s concentrations, specializations, and co-curricular programs. SIPA offers six concentrations: Economic and Political Development (EPD), Energy and Environment (EE), Human Rights (HR), International Finance and Economic Policy (IFEP), International Security Policy (ISP), or Urban and Social Policy (USP). Energy and Environment, IFEP and USP offer two tracks each. For example my concentration is Urban and Social policy- Social track. Someone else might be International Finance and Economic Policy- Economic Policy.   Very loosely speaking, concentrations are the equivalent of undergraduate majors. All MPA and MIA students choose a concentration, except for students who are pursuing a dual degree. Concentrations consist of five courses each. Some concentrations, for example Human Rights (HR) and USP, are extremely flexible allowing students to take one core course and then tailor the track to their interests through focus areas. Other concentrations, for example IFEP, are more structured and require students to fulfill five specific requirements from a distinct set of courses. When choosing a concentration, as either an applicant or a student, it is important to consider the skills you want to acquire during your time at SIPA and how you plan to market yourself afterward. If you need to gain a strong quantitative background, then IFEP might be the right choice for you. If you plan to market yourself as a Human Rights advocate, you might want to concentrate in HR. While students do not officially “double concentrate,” SIPA’s curriculum offers the flexibility to take courses outside of your concentration to gain additional skills or background in whatever area you choose. In addition to concentrations, all non-dual degree seeking MIA and MPA students select a specialization. These would be the loose equivalent of an undergraduate minor. Specializations take one of two forms: regional (Africa,  East Asia,  East Central Europe,  Europe,  Latin America,  Middle East,  Russia and the Former Soviet States,  South Asia or United States); or skill/policy based including, Advanced Policy and Economic Analysis (APEA),   Applied Science (AS),   International Conflict Resolution (ICR),   International Media, Advocacy and Communications (IMAC), International Organization (IO) and Management.  Students specialize in either a region or a skill/policy area, not both. The specialization requirements are three courses each so most students wind up fulfilling the requirements for at least one specialization just by following their own interests. Again, when considering a specialization students balance the skills and background they want to acquire while at SIPA with the ways in which they plan to market themselves post-graduation.  I will qualify for both a United States and Management specialization, but have chosen to specialize in management because I want to highlight expertise in organizational leadership as I apply to jobs. Any MIA or MPA student can concentrate or specialize in any combination, meaning that there are 180 possible combinations available to MIA and MPA’s alone! Finally, we come to SIPA’s three co-curricular programs: Gender Policy (GP), Humanitarian Affairs (HA) and United Nations Studies Program (UNSP). Unlike concentrations and specializations participation in co-curricular programs is optional although from my personal experience, highly recommended! The three co-curricular programs are very different from one another in their requirements and you can find more about each program by clicking here. The co-curricular programs are extremely useful in establishing oneself as an expert if students plan to pursue post-SIPA careers in these specific fields. I will be able to list a certificate in gender policy alongside my MPA degree on my resume.   They tend to focus on gaining practical experience even more so than concentrations and are designed to give students a solid foundation and background in policy and practice in their professional field.     Anecdotally, I will share with you that the courses I have taken to satisfy the requiremen ts for my Gender Policy co-curricular have been hands down my favorites at SIPA and have left me feeling confident and prepared to market myself as an expert in gender policy. Incidentally, if you factor in our co-curricular programs, this brings the possible MIA and MPA combinations to 540! Whatever your policy interest there is a way to gain the skills you need here at SIPA.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay about Importance of Nursing Theory - 1317 Words

Nursing theories are the support of nursing practice today. They are significant to nursing practice, education and scientific research because they help to determine, what is already known, and what additional knowledge and skills are needed. Nurses are usually first exposed to nursing theories during nursing education and further exposure comes from hands on training. The gained knowledge, about nursing theories, through education and training enhances better outcomes for patients and caregivers, allows application of professional boundaries, and assists in decision making. In this paper I will attempt to analyze, in general, the importance of nursing theory to the nursing profession; discuss middle-range theory, furthermore Benner’s†¦show more content†¦There are many different nursing theories that are significant to nursing practice, because they help nurses to examine what is already known, and what additional knowledge and skills are required in variety of nursing situations. They provide basis for nursing practice, as well as some additional tools, that help with delivery of better care to patients and caregivers. Finally, nursing theories improve professional status for nurses and provide guidance and direction for research and education (Colley, 2003). In today’s world, it is essential to incorporate nursing theory into practice. Patricia Benner, through her work, â€Å"has provided essential understanding of how knowledge and skills are acquired and directly applied to nursing practice, education, research and administration† (Altmann, 2007, p. 114). According to Benner’s model of skill acquisition, â€Å"the nurse passes through five stages of career development, novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert† (English, 1993, p.387). Specific patterns of behavior, thinking, and performance is present in each stage. The most experience is associated with the expert nurse and the least experience is possessed by the novice nurse (Benjamin, 2007). This model is based on ascending level of proficiency and the key concepts of this model are: competence, skill attainment, experience, clinical knowledge and practical knowledgeShow MoreRelatedImportance Of Theory Of Nursing Theory1723 Words à ‚  |  7 Pages Importance of Theory Evelyne Previl Chamberlain College of Nursing Importance of Theory Nursing theory is defined as a group of concepts, philosophy, or ideas that define and guide the nursing practice. In fact, nursing practice is firmly rooted from these concepts that were at times empirical, then abstract, and inferential. Reflecting back to the time of Florence Nightingale who is the pioneer in modern nursing and nursing theory up to the corner of 21st centuryRead MoreImportance Of Nursing Theories1453 Words   |  6 PagesNursing theory is a â€Å"set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models† (Current Nursing, 2012). Nursing theories are set as a model for shaping the practice of healthcare and providing the best possible outcome for the patient. One of the nursing theories this paper will explore is the Need Theory by Virginia Henderson. The Need Theory promotes increased independence to promote continued healing after hospitalization. Importance of Theory ConceptualRead MoreThe Importance Of Theory Of Nursing1839 Words   |  8 PagesThe Importance of Theory Christi McDonald Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 501: Theoretical Basis for Advanced Nursing Practice March, 2016 The Importance of Theory Since I have been a nurse I never really gave much thought about any of the theories I learned in nursing school, I guess I was just so happy to finish. However, as years have expired and find myself back in school furthering my education, now I recall the importance of nursing theories. As many people or should I say nurses frequentlyRead MoreImportance Of Nursing Theory For Nursing Practice1383 Words   |  6 PagesThe Importance of Nursing Theory Alvin McDonald Chamberlain College of Nursing NR501: Theoretical Basis for Advanced Nursing Practice September, 2016 The Importance of Nursing Theory Nursing theory is the skeleton on which the profession and practice of nursing rests. It is a construct of concepts specific to nursing that shapes and guides nursing practice. Nursing theory can guide nursing practice by giving a particular focus to nursing practice (Algase, 2015). Nursing theory provides theRead MoreEssay on Nursing Theories and Their Importance in Nursing1831 Words   |  8 PagesNursing theories and their importance in nursing Jennifer J. Wilson Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 501: Theoretical Basis for Advanced Nursing Instructor Berens 1/12/15 Nursing Theory is often defined as,† an organized framework of concepts and purposes designed to guide the practice of nursing† (Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, 2012). Nursing theories can help patients, managers and other healthcare professionals to recognize what and how much that nurses doRead MoreImportance of Nursing Theory Essay1535 Words   |  7 PagesNursing Theory Wendy Benson Chamberlain College of Nursing Theoretical Basis of Advanced Nursing NR501 July 20, 2013 Nursing Theory Nursing theories are the basic concepts that define nursing practice and provide the explanation to why nurses do what they do. Nurses are exposed to theories everyday in their practice. Did I give much thought to nursing theories prior to becoming a student? No, I did not. Of course I utilized them in my everyday nursing practice, but never put much thoughtRead MoreImportance Of Theory For Nursing Care1525 Words   |  7 PagesImportance of Theory Theory can have different meaning depending on the setting. Theory can be based on a hypothesis or simply a collection or thoughts and ideas. Nursing theories, provide ideas and designs that define the place of nursing in healthcare. Theories are a fundamental part of nursing and exist to improve patient care outcomes. In 2001, Jean Watson’s caring theory was adopted in the health system where I work as a registered nurse. The Nurse Governance Council adopted the Watson’s philosophyRead MoreImportance of Ethical Theory in Nursing1322 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The concept of ethical nursing and culturally competent care are becoming more and more important in the contemporary nursing practice (Smith Godfrey,2002).Despite their general appreciation in nursing practice, challenges and dilemma often clouds their application in a world which is continually being marked with a culturally diverse and demanding population. In this paper we present a critical review of ethics and cultural competence in professional nursing practice with a clear focus onRead MoreImportance Of Theory For Nursing Practice2120 Words   |  9 PagesImportance of Theory Rhonda Rodriguez Chamberlain College of Nursing Theoretical Basis for Advanced Nursing Practice NR501 January 9, 2016 Importance of Theory Theory can have different meaning depending on the setting. Theory can be based on a hypothesis or simply a collection or thoughts and ideas. Nursing theories, provide ideas that define the place of nursing in health care. Theories are an important part of nursing and exist to improve patient care outcomes (Desmond et al., 2014) InRead MoreHildegard Peplaus Theory And Its Importance Of Nursing Theory1465 Words   |  6 PagesNursing Theory and its Importance Nursing theory is the pillar of nursing. It is very important in the application of evidence-based practice (EBP). The functions of a theory are to narrow and provide specific information for the analysis of initially confusing behaviors, situations, and events (Fawcett Madeya 2013). As a matter of fact, nursing theory gives the nurse a framework for organizing and analyzing information as well as a base for identifying with their patients throughout the nurse-patient

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay - 1049 Words

Autism If your odds were one in 68 would you play the lotto? With odds that good it would be hard not to, but these are not the odds for the lottery - this is the chance that your child will have autism. Autism is a challenging disorder not only for the child, but also for the parents and family of the child. A long road begins for the family once this disorder is diagnosed and it takes a strong support structure for all that are involved. In today’s society, every person and profession will at some point encounter a child or an adult with autism. It is important that everyone has a basic understanding of this disorder. Autism is a complex mental disorder that at its best hinders the child socializing with peers and in worst cases†¦show more content†¦Most researchers agree that it is related to abnormities in the structure and function of the brain. Problems before and during birth have been shown to increase the risk in autism. Parents that have children later in life run a higher risk then parents that have children while they are younger. Genetics may also play a role in increasing the risk of autism. When an identical twin has autism, the likelihood the other twin will also have it is much greater than if the twins where fraternal. Signs of autism usually appear in a child’s first three years. Early diagnosis is extremely important to improving communication and social skills so parents are encouraged to report anything they find suspicious to their pediatrician. The following are seven red flags that has listed that should prompt you as a parent to ask your pediatrician for an evaluation: †¢ No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions by six months or thereafter †¢ No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles or other facial expressions by nine months †¢ No babbling by 12 months †¢ No words by 16 months †¢ No meaningful, two-word phrases (not including imitating or repeating) by 24 months †¢ Any loss of speech, babbling or social skills at any age With a diagnosis of autism comes a sudden change in the family’s routine. This can place a lot of stress and pressure on parents and siblings of children with autism. ParentsShow MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism Essay1393 Words   |  6 PagesAutism is a neurological disorder with many forms and severities, better known as autism spectrum disorder, that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout the individual’s life. Autism spectrum disorder is defined as developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges (CDC). Previously, autism was recognized in distinct groups and types. Now, autism is referred to as a spectrum because there is an overlap among all the different forms of autismRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism2594 Words   |  11 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder is defined as a neurodevelopmental condition that is classified by a triad of impairments. These impairments are in communica tion, socialization, and repetitive patterns of behavior (Wolf, 2004). Autism affects about 1% of the current population (Shishido, Branko, Norio, 2013). This disorder seems like a common diagnosis in the current day in age but the disorder was only discovered around sixty years ago. The two founding researchers that discovered the disorder are KannerRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1827 Words   |  8 Pagesin the United States had one or more developmental disorders in 2006-2008. This can affect the person mentally, physically, emotionally, or a combination of the three. These range from something as simple as a speech delay to something as complex as cerebral palsy. One of these developmental disorders is autism. Autism can cause social, communication, and behavioral challenges. One in 68 children are affected by autism. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is 4.5 times more common in boys. One in forty-twoRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism ) Essay1739 Words   |à ‚  7 Pagesconventions (Lai, 2014). These two observations would be the beginning of a disorder known as the Autism Spectrum Disorder. This developmental disorder, characterized by a range of deficits in different areas, is increasingly prevalent in society and in the media. While the exact numbers vary from country to country, according to Lai (2014), 1% of the general population is diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. The range of this disorder has a detrimental effect on society, specifically the educationalRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism ) Essay1858 Words   |  8 Pages Autism Spectrum Disorder affects various aspects of an autistic child’s life. Many children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder every year, while others go undiagnosed for an extended time, or even for their whole life. A child exhibiting delays in language benchmarks or showing little interest in the surroundings should be examined for possible ASD. Language is often impaired and although the level of impairment can range from severe too unnoticeable in each child, a child is likely toRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1446 Words   |  6 PagesPublic Health Problem Autism or autism spectrum disorder ( ASD) is a developmental disorder that has been found world wide. However unlike many other disorders, autism is fairly new in the sense that there is no cure nor a set factor causing it. Today, the public is more aware of the disorder, yet there is still concern about how to treat autism in children as well as what risk factors are more likely to lead to autism. Autism has been around for the past hundred years, however previous to theRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1409 Words   |  6 Pagesboys and 1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism in the United States (Autism Speaks, n.d.). Can be diagnosed in all racial and ethnic groups, as well as every age group. In the 2013 publication of DSM-5 diagnostic manual, Asperger syndrome, Autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) were merged into one category of ASD. This paper will explain what Autism Spectrum Disorder is, causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosisRead MoreAutism And Autism Spectrum Disorder1267 Words   |  6 Pages and the way he interacted with others, spoke to me on a profound level. I know autism when I see it. For those not familiar with autism, Autism Speaks, the world’s leading autism science and advocacy organization, defines autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees (hence, a â€Å"Spectrum† that includes both low- and high-functioning individuals), by difficulties in socialRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1401 Words   |  6 PagesIn America about one out of 88 children have autism spectrum disorder and about 36,500 in four million children are born with autism. Currently approximately 1.5 million adults are living with autism in the United States. The autistic brain is a complicated phenomenon, which has required many years of research in the biomedical field by institutes, organizations, and the government to comprehend the disorder. Depending on the severity of the disorder – low functionin g or high functioning – and theRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism Essay2049 Words   |  9 Pages Autism and Asperger’s are two syndromes that are now looked as being part of the ‘Autism Spectrum Disorder’. Asperger’s is on the high functioning end while Autism is on the low functioning end. Before the ‘autism spectrum’ was created, in nineteen forty-three and nineteen forty-four, a psychiatrist named Leo Kanner and German scientist named Hans Asperger discovered Autism and Asperger’s. Their research included looking at cases of children who were different and had qualities of aloneness, obsessiveness

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Golden Compass Chapter Eight Free Essays

Chapter Eight Frustration Lyra had to adjust to her new sense of her own story, and that couldn’t be done in a day. To see Lord Asriel as her father was one thing, but to accept Mrs. Coulter as her mother was nowhere near so easy. We will write a custom essay sample on The Golden Compass Chapter Eight or any similar topic only for you Order Now A couple of months ago she would have rejoiced, of course, and she knew that too, and felt confused. But, being Lyra, she didn’t fret about it for long, for there was the fen town to explore and many gyptian children to amaze. Before the three days were up she was an expert with a punt (in her eyes, at least) and she’d gathered a gang of urchins about her with tales of her mighty father, so unjustly made captive. â€Å"And then one evening the Turkish Ambassador was a guest at Jordan for dinner. And he was under orders from the Sultan hisself to kill my father, right, and he had a ring on his finger with a hollow stone full of poison. And when the wine come round he made as if to reach across my father’s glass, and he sprinkled the poison in. It was done so quick that no one else saw him, but – â€Å" â€Å"What sort of poison?† demanded a thin-faced girl. â€Å"Poison out of a special Turkish serpent,† Lyra invented, â€Å"what they catch by playing a pipe to lure out and then they throw it a sponge soaked in honey and the serpent bites it and can’t get his fangs free, and they catch it and milk the venom out of it. Anyway, my father seen what the Turk done, and he says, Gentlemen, I want to propose a toast of friendship between Jordan College and the College of Izmir, which was the college the Turkish Ambassador belonged to. And to show our willingness to be friends, he says, we’ll swap glasses and drink each other’s wine. â€Å"And the Ambassador was in a fix then, ’cause he couldn’t refuse to drink without giving deadly insult, and he couldn’t drink it because he knew it was poisoned. He went pale and he fainted right away at the table. And when he come round they was all still sitting there, waiting and looking at him. And then he had to either drink the poison or own up.† â€Å"So what did he do?† â€Å"He drunk it. It took him five whole minutes to die, and he was in torment all the time.† â€Å"Did you see it happen?† â€Å"No, ’cause girls en’t allowed at the High Table. But I seen his body afterwards when they laid him out. His skin was all withered like an old apple, and his eyes were starting from his head. In fact, they had to push ’em back in the sockets†¦.† And so on. Meanwhile, around the edges of the fen country, the police were knocking at doors, searching attics and outhouses, inspecting papers and interrogating everyone who claimed to have seen a blond little girl; and in Oxford the search was even fiercer. Jordan College was scoured from the dustiest boxroom to the darkest cellar, and so were Gabriel and St. Michael’s, till the heads of all the colleges issued a joint protest asserting their ancient rights. The only notion Lyra had of the search for her was the incessant drone of the gas engines of airships crisscrossing the skies. They weren’t visible, because the clouds were low and by statute airships had to keep a certain height above fen country, but who knew what cunning spy devices they might carry? Best to keep under cover when she heard them, or wear the oilskin sou’wester over her bright distinctive hair. And she questioned Ma Costa about every detail of the story of her birth. She wove the details into a mental tapestry even clearer and sharper than the stories she made up, and lived over and over again the flight from the cottage, the concealment in the closet, the harsh-voiced challenge, the clash of swords – â€Å"Swords? Great God, girl, you dreaming?† Ma Costa said. â€Å"Mr. Coulter had a gun, and Lord Asriel knocked it out his hand and struck him down with one blow. Then there was two shots. I wonder you don’t remember; you ought to, little as you were. The first shot was Edward Coulter, who reached his gun and fired, and the second was Lord Asriel, who tore it out his grasp a second time and turned it on him. Shot him right between the eyes and dashed his brains out. Then he says cool as paint, ‘Come out, Mrs. Costa, and bring the baby,’ because you were setting up such a howl, you and that daemon both; and he took you up and dandled you and sat you on his shoulders, walking up and down in high good humor with the dead man at his feet, and called for wine and bade me swab the floor.† By the end of the fourth repetition of the story Lyra was perfectly convinced she did remember it, and even volunteered details of the color of Mr. Coulter’s coat and the cloaks and furs hanging in the closet. Ma Costa laughed. And whenever she was alone, Lyra took out the alethiome-ter and pored over it like a lover with a picture of the beloved. So each image had several meanings, did it? Why shouldn’t she work them out? Wasn’t she Lord Asriel’s daughter? Remembering what Farder Coram had said, she tried to focus her mind on three symbols taken at random, and clicked the hands round to point at them, and found that if she held the alethiometer just so in her palms and gazed at it in a particular lazy way, as she thought of it, the long needle would begin to move more purposefully. Instead of its wayward divagations around the dial it swung smoothly from one picture to another. Sometimes it would pause at three, sometimes two, sometimes five or more, and although she understood nothing of it, she gained a deep calm enjoyment from it, unlike anything she’d known. Pantalaimon would crouch over the dial, sometimes as a cat, sometimes as a mouse, swinging his head round after the needle; and once or twice the two of them shared a glimpse of meaning that felt as if a shaft of sunlight had struck through clouds to light up a majestic line of great hills in the distance – something far beyond, and never suspected. And Lyra thrilled at those times with the same deep thrill she’d felt all her life on hearing the word North. So the three days passed, with much coming and going between the multitude of boats and the Zaal. And then came the evening of the second roping. The hall was more crowded than before, if that was possible. Lyra and the Costas got there in time to sit at the front, and as soon as the flickering lights showed that the place was crammed, John Faa and Farder Coram came out on the platform and sat behind the table. John Faa didn’t have to make a sign for silence; he just put his great hands flat on the table and looked at the people below, and the hubbub died. â€Å"Well,† he said, â€Å"you done what I asked. And better than I hoped. I’m a going to call on the heads of the six families now to come up here and give over their gold and recount their promises. Nicholas Rokeby, you come first.† A stout black-bearded man climbed onto the platform and laid a heavy leather bag on the table. â€Å"That’s our gold,† he said. â€Å"And we offer thirty-eight men.† â€Å"Thank you, Nicholas,† said John Faa. Farder Coram was making a note. The first man stood at the back of the platform as John Faa called for the next, and the next, and each came up, laid a bag on the table, and announced the number of men he could muster. The Costas were part of the Stefanski family, and naturally Tony had been one of the first to volunteer. Lyra noticed his hawk daemon shifting from foot to foot and spreading her wings as the Stefanski money and the promise of twenty-three men were laid before John Faa. When the six family heads had all come up, Farder Coram showed his piece of paper to John Faa, who stood up to address the audience again. â€Å"Friends, that’s a muster of one hundred and seventy men. I thank you proudly. As for the gold, I make no doubt from the weight of it that you’ve all dug deep in your coffers, and my warm thanks go out for that as well. â€Å"What we’re a going to do next is this. We’re a going to charter a ship and sail north, and find them kids and set ’em free. From what we know, there might be some fighting to do. It won’t be the first time, nor it won’t be the last, but we never had to fight yet with people who kidnap children, and we shall have to be uncommon cunning. But we en’t going to come back without our kids. Yes, Dirk Vries?† A man stood up and said, â€Å"Lord Faa, do you know why they captured them kids?† â€Å"We heard it’s a theological matter. They’re making an experiment, but what nature it is we don’t know. To tell you all the truth, we don’t even know whether any harm is a coming to ’em. But whatever it is, good or bad, they got no right to reach out by night and pluck little children out the hearts of their families. Yes, Raymond van Gerrit?† The man who’d spoken at the first meeting stood up and said, â€Å"That child, Lord Faa, the one you spoke of as being sought, the one as is sitting in the front row now. I heard as all the folk living around the edge of the fens is having their houses turned upside down on her account. I heard there’s a move in Parliament this very day to rescind our ancient privileges on account of this child. Yes, friends,† he said, over the babble of shocked whispers, â€Å"they’re a going to pass a law doing away with our right to free movement in and out the fens. Now, Lord Faa, what we want to know is this: who is this child on account of which we might come to such a pass? She en’t a gyptian child, not as I heard. How comes it that a landloper child can put us all in danger?† Lyra looked up at John Faa’s massive frame. Her heart was thumping so much she could hardly hear the first words of his reply. â€Å"Now spell it out, Raymond, don’t be shy,† he said. â€Å"You want us to give this child up to them she’s a fleeing from, is that right?† The man stood obstinately frowning, but said nothing. â€Å"Well, perhaps you would, and perhaps you wouldn’t,† John Faa continued. â€Å"But if any man or woman needs a reason for doing good, ponder on this. That little girl is the daughter of Lord Asriel, no less. For them as has forgotten, it were Lord Asriel who interceded with the Turk for the life of Sam Broekman. It were Lord Asriel who allowed gyptian boats free passage on the canals through his property. It were Lord Asriel who defeated the Watercourse Bill in Parliament, to our great and lasting benefit. And it were Lord Asriel who fought day and night in the floods of ’53, and plunged headlong in the water twice to pull out young Ruud and Nellie Koopman. You forgotten that? Shame, shame on you, shame. â€Å"And now that same Lord Asriel is held in the farthest coldest darkest regions of the wild, captive, in the fortress of Svalbard. Do I need to tell you the kind of creatures a guarding him there? And this is his little daughter in our care, and Raymond van Gerrit would hand her over to the authorities for a bit of peace and quiet. Is that right, Raymond? Stand up and answer, man.† But Raymond van Gerrit had sunk to his seat, and nothing would make him stand. A low hiss of disapproval sounded through the great hall, and Lyra felt the shame he must be feeling, as well as a deep glow of pride in her brave father. John Faa turned away, and looked at the other men on the platform. â€Å"Nicholas Rokeby, I’m a putting you in charge of finding a vessel, and commanding her once we sail. Adam Stefanski, I want you to take charge of the arms and munitions, and command the fighting. Roger van Poppel, you look to all the other stores, from food to cold-weather clothing. Simon Hartmann, you be treasurer, and account to us all for a proper apportionment of our gold. Benjamin de Ruyter, I want you to take charge of spying. There’s a great deal we ought to find out, and I’m a giving you the charge of that, and you’ll report to Farder Coram. Michael Canzona, you’re going to be responsible for coordinating the first four leaders’ work, and you’ll report to me, and if I die, you’re my second in command and you’ll take over. â€Å"Now I’ve made my dispositions according to custom, and if any man or woman seeks to disagree, they may do so freely.† After a moment a woman stood up. â€Å"Lord Faa, en’t you a taking any women on this expedition to look after them kids once you found ’em?† â€Å"No, Nell. We shall have little space as it is. Any kids we free will be better off in our care than where they’ve been.† â€Å"But supposing you find out that you can’t rescue ’em without some women in disguise as guards or nurses or whatever?† â€Å"Well, I hadn’t thought of that,† John Faa admitted. â€Å"We’ll consider that most carefully when we retire into the parley room, you have my promise.† She sat down and a man stood up. â€Å"Lord Faa, I heard you say that Lord Asriel is in captivity. Is it part of your plan to rescue him? Because if it is, and if he’s in the power of them bears as I think you said, that’s going to need more than a hundred and seventy men. And good friend as Lord Asriel is to us, I don’t know as there’s any call on us to go as far as that.† â€Å"Adriaan Braks, you’re not wrong. What I had it in my mind to do was to keep our eyes and ears open and see what knowledge we can glean while we’re in the North. It may be that we can do something to help him, and it may not, but you can trust me not to use what you’ve provided, man and gold, for any purpose outside the stated one of finding our children and bringing ’em home.† Another woman stood up. â€Å"Lord Faa, we don’t know what them Gobblers might’ve been doing to our children. We all heard rumors and stories of fearful things. We hear about children with no heads, or about children cut in half and sewn together, or about things too awful to mention. I’m truly sorry to distress anyone, but we all heard this kind of thing, and I want to get it out in the open. Now in case you find anything of that awful kind, Lord Faa, I hope you’re a going to take powerful revenge. I hope you en’t going to let thoughts of mercy and gentleness hold your hand back from striking and striking hard, and delivering a mighty blow to the heart of that infernal wickedness. And I’m sure I speak for any mother as has lost a child to the Gobblers.† There was a loud murmur of agreement as she sat down. Heads were nodding all over the Zaal. John Faa waited for silence, and said: â€Å"Nothing will hold my hand, Margaret, save only judgment. If I stay my hand in the North, it will only be to strike the harder in the South. To strike a day too soon is as bad as striking a hundred miles off. To be sure, there’s a warm passion behind what you say. But if you give in to that passion, friends, you’re a doing what I always warned you agin: you’re a placing the satisfaction of your own feelings above the work you have to do. Our work here is first rescue, then punishment. It en’t gratification for upset feelings. Our feelings don’t matter. If we rescue the kids but we can’t punish the Gobblers, we’ve done the main task. But if we aim to punish the Gobblers first and by doing so lose the chance of rescuing the kids, we’ve failed. â€Å"But be assured of this, Margaret. When the time comes to punish, we shall strike such a blow as’ll make their hearts faint and fearful. We shall strike the strength out of ’em. We shall leave them ruined and wasted, broken and shattered, torn in a thousand pieces and scattered to the four winds. Don’t you worry that John Faa’s heart is too soft to strike a blow when the time comes. And the time will come under judgment. Not under passion. â€Å"Is there anyone else who wants to speak? Speak if you will.† But no one did, and presently John Faa reached for the closing bell and rang it hard and loud, swinging it high and shaking the peals out of it so that they filled the hall and rang the rafters. John Faa and the other men left the platform for the parley room. Lyra was a little disappointed. Didn’t they want her there too? But Tony laughed. â€Å"They got plans to make,† he said. â€Å"You done your part, Lyra. Now it’s for John Faa and the council.† â€Å"But I en’t done nothing yet!† Lyra protested, as she followed the others reluctantly out of the hall and down the cobbled road toward the jetty. â€Å"All I done was run away from Mrs. Coulter! That’s just a beginning. I want to go north!† â€Å"Tell you what,† said Tony, â€Å"I’ll bring you back a walrus tooth, that’s what I’ll do.† Lyra scowled. For his part, Pantalaimon occupied himself by making monkey faces at Tony’s daemon, who closed her tawny eyes in disdain. Lyra drifted to the jetty and hung about with her new companions, dangling lanterns on strings over the black water to attract the goggle-eyed fishes who swam slowly up to be lunged at with sharp sticks and missed. But her mind was on John Faa and the parley room, and before long she slipped away up the cobbles again to the Zaal. There was a light in the parley room window. It was too high to look through, but she could hear a low rumble of voices inside. So she walked up to the door and knocked on it firmly five times. The voices stopped, a chair scraped across the floor, and the door opened, spilling warm naphtha light out on the damp step. â€Å"Yes?† said the man who’d opened it. Beyond him Lyra could see the other men around the table, with bags of gold stacked neatly, and papers and pens, and glasses and a crock of jenniver. â€Å"I want to come north,† Lyra said so they could all hear it. â€Å"I want to come and help rescue the kids. That’s what I set out to do when I run away from Mrs. Coulter. And before that, even, I meant to rescue my friend Roger the kitchen boy from Jordan who was took. I want to come and help. I can do navigation and I can take anbaromagnetic readings off the Aurora, and I know what parts of a bear you can eat, and all kind of useful things. You’d be sorry if you got up there and then found you needed me and found you’d left me behind. And like that woman said, you might need women to play a part – well, you might need kids too. You don’t know. So you oughter take me, Lord Faa, excuse me for interrupting your talk.† She was inside the room now, and all the men and their daemons were watching her, some with amusement and some with irritation, but she had eyes only for John Faa. Pantalaimon sat up in her arms, his wildcat eyes blazing green. John Faa said, â€Å"Lyra, there en’t no question of taking you into danger, so don’t delude yourself, child. Stay here and help Ma Costa and keep safe. That’s what you got to do.† â€Å"But I’m learning how to read the alethiometer, too. It’s coming clearer every day! You’re bound to need that – bound to!† He shook his head. â€Å"No,† he said. â€Å"I know your heart was set on going north, but it’s my belief not even Mrs. Coulter was going to take you. If you want to see the North, you’ll have to wait till all this trouble’s over. Now off you go.† Pantalaimon hissed quietly, but John Faa’s daemon took off from the back of his chair and flew at them with black wings, not threateningly, but like a reminder of good manners; and Lyra turned on her heel as the crow glided over her head and wheeled back to John Faa. The door shut behind her with a decisive click. â€Å"We will go,† she said to Pantalaimon. â€Å"Let ’em try to stop us. We will!† How to cite The Golden Compass Chapter Eight, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Type of air pollution, formed when oxides of sulfu Essay Example For Students

Type of air pollution, formed when oxides of sulfu Essay r and nitrogen combine with atmospheric moisture to yield sulfuric and nitric acids, which may then be carried long distances from a source before they are deposited by rain, is called acid rain This pollution may also take the form of snow, fog, or a dry form of precipitation. Acid rain is currently a subject of great controversy because of widespread environmental damage for which it has been blamed, including eroding structures, injuring crops and forests, and threatening or depleting life in freshwater lakes. One of the main causes of acid rain is sulfur dioxide. Natural sources which emit this gas are volcanoes, sea spray , rotting vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this gas in the world. When sulfur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulfate ion. It then becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs the most in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, converting more sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. However, not all of the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid. In fact, a substantial amount can float up into the atmosphere, move over to another area and return to earth unconverted. The following are the stoichiometric equations for the formation of sulfuric acid: S (in coal) + O2? SO2 2 SO2 + O2? 2 SO3 SO3 + H2O? H2SO4 Nitric oxide and nitric dioxide are also components of acid rain. Its sources are mainly from power stations and exhaust fumes. Like sulfur dioxide, these nitrogen oxides rise into the atmosphere and are oxidized in clouds to form nitric acid. These reactions are also catalyzed in heavily polluted clouds where iron, manganese, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are present. One of the direct effects of acid rain is on lakes and its aquatic ecosystems. There are several routes through which acidic chemicals can enter the lakes. Some chemical substances exist as dry particles in the air while others enter the lakes as wet particles such as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew or fog. In addition, lakes can almost be thought of as the sinks of the earth, where rain that falls on land is drained through the sewage systems eventually make their way into the lakes. Acid rain that falls onto the earth washes off the nutrients out of the soil and carries toxic metals that hav e been released from the soil into the lakes. Another harmful way in which acids can enter the lakes is spring acid shock. When snow melts in spring rapidly due to a sudden temperature change, the acids and chemicals in the snow are released into the soils. The melted snow then runs off to streams and rivers, and gradually make their way into the lakes. The introduction of these acids and chemicals into the lakes causes a sudden drastic change in the pH of the lakes hence the term spring acid shock. The aquatic ecosystem has no time to adjust to the sudden change. In addition, springtime is an especially vulnerable time for many aquatic species since this is the time for reproduction for amphibians, fish and insects. Many of these species lay their eggs in the water to hatch. The sudden pH change is dangerous because the acids can cause serious deformities in their young or even annihilate the whole species since the young of many of such species spend a significant part of their l ife cycle in the water. Subsequently, sulfuric acid in water can affect the fish in the lakes in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) directly interferes with the fishs ability to take in oxygen, salt and nutrients needed to stay alive. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. Acid molecules in the water cause mucus to form in their gills and this prevents the fish to absorb oxygen as well. If the buildup of mucus increases, the fish would suffocate. In addition, a low pH will throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue. Salts levels such as the calcium (Ca+2) levels of some fish cannot be maintained due to pH change. This results in poor reproduction their eggs produced would be damaged; they are either too brittle or too weak. Decreased Ca+2 levels also result in weak spines and deformities. For example, crayfish need Ca+2 to maintain a healthy exoskeleton; low Ca+2 levels would mean a weak exoskeleton. Another type of salt N+ also influences the well being of the fish. As nitrogen-containing fertilizers are washed off into the lakes, the nitrogen stimulates the growth of algae, which logically would mean an increase in oxygen production, thus benefiting the fish. However, because of increased deaths in the fish population due to acid rain, the decomposition process uses up a lot of the oxygen, which leaves less for the surviving fish to take in. Indirectly, sulfuric acid releases heavy metals present in soils to be dissociated and released. For example, aluminum (Al+2) is harmless as part of a compound, but because acid rain causes Al+2 to be released into the soils and gradually into the lakes, it becomes lethal to the health of the fish in the lakes. Al+2 burns the gills of the fish and accumulates in their organs, causing much damage. So, although many fish may be able to tolerate a pH of ap proximately 5.9, this acid level is high enough to release Al+2 from the soils to kill the fish. This effect is further augmented by spring acid shock. The effect of acid rain can be dynamically illustrated in a study done on Lake 223, which started in 1976. Scientists monitored the pH and aquatic ecosystem of Lake 223. They observed that as the pH of the lake decrease over the years, a number of crustaceans died out because of problems in reproduction due to the acidity of the lake caused by acid precipitation. At a pH of 5.6, algae growth in the lake was hindered and some types of small died out. Eventually, it was followed by larger fish dying out with the same problem in reproduction; there were more adult fish in the lake than there were young fish. Finally, in 1983, the lake reached a pH of 5 and the surviving fish in the lake were thin and deformed and unable to reproduce. This case study obviously illustrates the significant effect of acid rain on lakes and its aquatic ecosy stem. One of the most serious impacts of acid precipitation is on forests and soils. Great damage is done when sulfuric acid falls onto the earth as rain. Nutrients present in the soils are washed away. Aluminum also present in the soil is freed and this toxic element can be absorbed by the roots of trees. Thus, the trees are starved to death as they are deprived of their vital nutrients such as calcium and magnesium. Not all of the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid. In fact, a substantial amount can float into the atmosphere, move over to another area and return to the soils unconverted. As this gas returns back to earth, it clogs up the stomata in the leaves, thus hindering photosynthesis. Research has been made where red spruce seedlings were sprayed with different combinations of sulfuric and nitric acid of pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5. The needles of these seedlings were observed to develop brown lesions. Eventually, the needles fall off. It was also found that new nee dles grew more slowly at higher concentrations of acid used. Because the rate at which the needles were falling was greater than the rate at which they were replenished, photosynthesis was greatly affected; the actual way in which these needles were killed is still not yet known. However, studies have shown that calcium and magnesium nutrients are washed away from their binding sites when sulfuric acid enters the system. They are replaced by useless hydrogen atoms and this inhibits photosynthesis. In addition, severe frosts may also further aggravate this situation. With sulfur dioxide, ammonia and ozone present in the air, the frost-hardiness of trees are reduced. Ammonia oxidizes with sulfur dioxide to form ammonium sulfate. This product forms on the surface of the trees. When ammonium sulfate reaches the soils, it reacts to form both sulfuric and nitric acid. Such conditions also stimulate the growth of fungi and pests like the ambrosia beetle. When trees are under such stress, t hey release chemicals such as terpenes which attract the ambrosia beetle. Nitrogen oxide and nitric oxide, also components of acid rain, can force trees to grow even though they do not have the necessary nutrients. As well, the trees are sometimes forced to grow well into late autumn when it is actually time for them to prepare for severe frosts in the winter. Acid rain also damages materials such as fabrics. For example, flags that are put up are being eaten away by the acidic chemicals in the precipitation. Books and age-old art that are centuries old are also being affected; the ventilation systems of the libraries and museums that hold them do not prevent the acidic particles from entering the buildings and so, they get in and circulate within the building, affecting and deteriorating the materials. .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .postImageUrl , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:hover , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:visited , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:active { border:0!important; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:active , .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub85883d0da0c72f96334171917ac058c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Benefits Of Online Shoppings Essay We will write a custom essay on Type of air pollution, formed when oxides of sulfu specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Among one of the serious side effects of acid pollution on humans is respiratory problems. The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations. An indirect effect of acid precipitation on humans is that the toxic metals dissolved in the water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effects on humans when they are being consumed. For example, mercury that accumulates in the organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage in children as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and death. Similarly, another metal, Aluminum, present in the organs of the animals, has been associated with kidney problems and recently, was suspected to be related to Alzheimers disease.