Thursday, September 19, 2019
Brown J. Jed, Glenn Edward P., and O’Leary James W. 1998. Irrigating Crops with Seawater. Scientific American. Irrigating Crops with Seawater'; talks about the global problem of finding enough water and land for the world’s population to survive. An estimated 494.2 million acres of cropland is needed just to feed the tropics and subtropics for the next 30 years. However, only close to 200 million acres are available. Therefore, new sources of water and land are needed to grow crops. The writers of this article have been testing the prospect of using seawater in agriculture. This seawater agriculture is when salt-tolerant crops are grown using ocean water for irrigation. Desert areas take up 43% of the surface of the earth and this new agriculture technique can be done in deserts. Hugo Boyko and Elisabeth Boyko first used seawater agriculture after World War II. Many different crops have been tested such as barley and the date palm. The writers of this article however have been testing halophytes, which, is a salt-tolerant plant that can be used for food, forage and oilseed crops. They f irst gathered several hundred halophytes and began testing these plants in the desert of Puerto PeÃ ±asco. They irrigated the plants daily by flooding the fields with seawater from the Gulf of California. The best halophytes produced roughly the yield of alfalfa using freshwater irrigation. In order to show that these halophytes could replace other crops for use they tested to see if the crops could feed livestock. The halophytes have protein and carbohydrates but they contain too much salt. This limits the amount an animal can eat and dilutes the nutritional value. Therefore, the authors decided to use the halophytes as part of a mixed diet for the livestock. The animals’ meat taste was not affected, but the animals eating the halophyte-mixed diet drank more water and produced 10 percent less meat. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This new agriculture method has many advantages too. First, it is cheaper to pump the seawater than to pump freshwater. In addition, seawater irrigation does not require any special equipment. The same fields have been irrigated for 10 years with no water buildup or salts in the root zone. Finally, installing the seawater irrigation will not disrupt the ecosystems as much because they are installed on barren or almost barren areas. There are also some disadvantages to irrigating crops with seawater. First, a large quantity of high-salt drainage water that will contain unused fertilizer will be discharged back into the sea.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã The Bard of Avon has in the character of Hamlet (in the tragedy of that name) a hero who has been accused of hesitation and indecisiveness. Are such accusations appropriate? L.C. Knights in Ã¢â¬Å"An Approach to HamletÃ¢â¬ explains the modern appeal of the tragedy in terms of the indecisiveness of its hero: Hamlet is a man who in the face of life and of death can make no affirmation, and it may well be that this irresolution Ã¢â¬â which goes far deeper than irresolution about the performance of a specific act Ã¢â¬â this fundamental doubt, explains the great appeal of the play in modern times. The point has been made by D.G. James in The Dream of Learning. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"is an image of modernity, of the soul without clear belief losing its way, and bringing itself and others to great distress and finally to disasterÃ¢â¬ ; it is Ã¢â¬Å"a tragedy not of excessive thought but of defeated thought,Ã¢â¬ and Hamlet himself is Ã¢â¬Å"a man caught in ethical and metaphysical uncertainties.Ã¢â¬ Now I am sure that Mr. James is right in emphasizing the element of scepticism in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s makeup Ã¢â¬â the weighing of alternative possibilities in such a way as to make choice between them virtually impossible [. . .] . (64) Ã Is there a connection between verbal hesitation and hesitation in action and decisions? Lawrence Danson in the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragic AlphabetÃ¢â¬ discusses the hesitation in action by the hero as related to his hesitation in speech: Ã To speak or act in a world where all speech and action are equivocal seeming is, for Hamlet, both perilous and demeaning, a kind of whoring. The whole vexed question of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s delay ought, I believe, to be considered in light of this dilemma. To a man alienated from his societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most basic symboli... ...ions: Hamlet. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Tragic Form in Shakespeare. N.p.: Princeton University Press, 1972. Ã Rose, Mark. Ã¢â¬Å"Reforming the Role.Ã¢â¬ Modern Critical Interpretations: Hamlet. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Homer to Brecht: The European Epic and Dramatic Traditions. Ed. Michael Seidel and Edward Mendelson. N.p.: Yale University Press, 1977. Ã Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html No line nos. Ã West, Rebecca. Ã¢â¬Å"A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption.Ã¢â¬ Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957. Ã Ã Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Ex: A childÃ¢â¬â¢s toy available at a dollar store may be cheaper, but the quality may not be as great compared to a similar toy at a higher priced toy store. The company must market the value of the toy to the consumer rather than the price. Industry AnalysisThe Coffee Industry has been booming for years, but recently many new players have come onto the scene such as Caribou Coffee, Starbucks Coffee Co., and even DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts. Each company offers numerous different blends, flavors, and roasts, but each claims their own to have different qualities that appeal to different markets. The veteran of the bunch is actually DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts, which has been serving coffee, and various baked goods since 1950. The company was founded by Bill Rosenberg and has grown from five locations in 1954 to over 6,000 locations in 30 different countries. It is considered the largest coffee and baked goods chain in the world and is tagged by the slogan: Ã¢â¬ The DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ DifferenceÃ¢â¬ . DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts had seemingly monopolized the industry until Starbucks Coffee Company came along in 1971. Their mission:Ã¢â¬ To inspire and nurture the human spirit-one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a time. Ã¢â¬Å"Howard Schultz joined on with Starbucks in 1982 as director of retail operations and began direct marketing to fine restaurants and espresso bars. By 1995 Starbucks had developed into a full-blown coffee company with its own line of glassware, coffee mugs, and even in store music sales. Today there are over 5,000 Starbucks locations in numerous different countries and a booming following of customers. Their target audience consists of a broad spectrum of Music, Art, and Coffee lovers which all can convene in a warm, musical atmosphere. Last but not least, the new comer to the scene, Caribou Coffee, which was established in 1992, based on the idea:Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦that if true passion, hard work and excellence go into an endeavor, the outcome will be a quality experience, and therefore rewarding.Ã¢â¬ Although a much smaller company, only comprised of around 500 locations, Caribou Coffee strives to create a unique experience for coffee drinkers that has that Ã¢â¬Å"aha momentÃ¢â ¬ as they describe it. So if these three companies are obviously all selling coffee, why do they have very passionate followers, who would seemingly rather stop drinking coffeeÃ than go to one of their competitors to get their morning jolt?DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts, like many other current companies are showing an enormous interest in the economic situations of their consumers. One of their current promotions is a Ã¢â¬Å"Free Turbo ShotÃ¢â¬ in any iced coffee purchased. Not only is the word FREE enticing it also offers some sort of financial relief and suddenly becomes a bargain in the eyes of their consumers. They are also very well known for their advertisements throughout the years, whether it is through the media in their numerous television commercials, or even in their print advertising in multiple magazines and coupons in newspapers. This is one of their key selling points over Starbucks because Starbucks as a company believes in word of mouth advertising rather than actual advertisements. Another campaign currently being run by DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts is for one lucky customer to create the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s next donut. Not only are they getting their customers involved in creating the donut, they are allowing anyone with access to their stores and website to vote on the numerous entries in the contest. Although this may somewhat alienate a small portion of their clientele by creating a donut that not everyone likes they are able to take the mass market and narrow it down to what a large portion of their consumers are interested in seeing as a product. Although this is a great concept they are not the only company willing to include their consumers in their product production. Starbucks has a strong hold in many aspects of the coffee industry due to their intense strategic orientation as well as their product management. The company is not only very interested in what their customers have to say about their products, but also are interested in what their own employees have to say. They do frequent coffee and tea sample-tasting to develop not only buzz about the launch of their new products, but to get feed back on what should stay the same and what needs to be changed. Through this communal version of brainstorming Starbucks can better understand their consumers and their employees needs. Another huge selling point of the Starbucks brand is in fact the actual logo that represents the company. The green circle boldly stating STARBUCKS COFFEE around the picture of a singing Siren is known throughout the world. It has become one of the most recognized symbols in the world and is a great advertisement in and ofÃ itself. Each Starbucks store also utilizes point of purchase marketing very efficiently. Throughout every store there are numerous signs and posters advertising upcoming sales on merchandise, new product lines, and even current products coupled with enticing pictures of not only their beverages but their delectable treats as well. Through something Starbucks likes to call the Ã¢â¬Å"Third PlaceÃ¢â¬ they are able to create a peaceful environment away from work and home that people can come to relax, enjoy great music, and even better coffee. Caribou Coffee is somewhat of a different breed. DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts focuses on the fast paced grab-n-go lifestyle, Starbucks is centered on tranquility and relaxation, but Caribou Coffee is all about adventure and exploration. Their founders actually created the company thanks to a trip through the Alaskan Wilderness, after a strenuous climb to the summit of a mountain. Their belief is that excellence is a product of hard work, and that life is too short for anything else. Caribou Coffee is not necessarily the cheapest coffee company around, but they definitely offer financially affordable drinks for people to enjoy. One of their current promotions is Ã¢â¬Å"Set Your Wild FreeÃ¢â¬ , which is centered on their most recent launch of a line of Ã¢â¬Å"8 Delicious Wild CoolersÃ¢â¬ . It sticks to their adventurous theme as well as giving a little extra enticement to their new product line. So if these companies are doing so many things right through community involvement, Public Service Announcements, marketing their products, and creating a unique, and individualistic feeling in each store, what modifications can be made to their marketing tactics? First off DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts has proven to have longevity in their product due to their willingness to adapt and grow with their surroundings. They could however obtain an account planner in order to help them better understand other demographics that who they are currently marketing to. Maybe the inclusion of music selections in their stores, or even adding a few health conscious choices to their menu would boost their sales and increase their return on investment. Starbucks on the other hand who does feature in store CD selections as well as health conscious drink options needs to focus more on the financial side of their business. They need to begin taking into accountÃ that the economy is in a slump, and even though they have a very marketable product, it will get them nowhere if the common man canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to buy they products let alone consume them. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure if they took a deeper look into their pricing and the actual cost of their product a happy medium could be obtained that would still benefit the company and the consumer as well. They also need to develop stronger marketing concepts that allow them to have more outside advertisements such as billboards, commercials, and maybe even coupons, which seem to be unheard of to the Starbucks brand. Finally, Caribou Coffee is actually in a great position to market their products because they have a great argument for opportunity cost to their consumers. They have a highly comparable product to the more pricey Starbucks line and are able to target a more accessible audience than the Starbucks brand. Marketing to the Ã¢â¬Å"every day JoeÃ¢â¬ will give them the opportunity to pull in people that may have never tried their coffee before but are willing to do so because of the price difference. Once discovering that their product is ironically similar to Starbucks in quality, but is more financially acceptable they are more likely to return as well as spread the word to others. In turn helping to increase revenue and benefiting the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ sales and popularity. In closing all three companies do a wonderful job of representing the coffee industry and have made millions marketing themselves as household names throughout the world. Slight adjustments for each company would allow them to grow and develop into even more productive companies that will prove to have great sustainability as well being dependable sources of that little extra boost that so people have come to rely on in their daily routines. Through in depth SWOT Analysis, Integrated Marketing Communication, and intense advertising these three companies has become a beacon of success. They will continue to illuminate the path to the future of coffee as well as our morning, afternoon, and sometimes late night buzz that we as warm blooded Americans crave. Works Cited 2003. Ã¢â¬Å"The Bean Stock.Ã¢â¬ www.thebeanstock.com2007. DD IP Holder LLC. www.dunkinfranchising.com2008. Caribou Coffee Company. www.cariboucoffee.com. 2009. DD IP Holder LLC. www.dunkindonuts.com2009. Starbucks Corporation. www.strabucks.com2009. Recall Ã¢â¬â Firm Press Release. Ã¢â¬Å"Caribous Coffee Participates in Nationwide Peanut Product Recall.Ã¢â¬ www.fda.govÃ¢â¬ Coffee.Ã¢â¬ National Geographic Online. 1996-2009. www.nationalgeographic.com/coffee. Coffee Geek. 2000-2009. WebMotif Net Services, Inc. www.coffeegeek.comKenneth Davids. Coffee Review. 2009. www.coffeereview.comMonica Guzman. Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks Ad Campaign is GutsyÃ¢â¬ . May 1, 2009. http://blog.seattlepi.com
Monday, September 16, 2019
JackÃ¢â¬â¢s heart pounds as he casts panicked looks around the classroom. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize the professor, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know any of the students, and he canÃ¢â¬â¢t even figure out what the subject is. In front of him is a test. At the very last minute his roommate awakens him. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s only another anxiety dream. The very fact that dreams like JackÃ¢â¬â¢s are common suggests that college is a stressful situation for young people. The cause of this stress can be academic, financial, and personal. Academic stress is common for college students. For many students, going to college is more than just attending classes and taking notes. They usually have a hard time understanding school guidelines and deciding what major they want to study. It is very stressful to read and understand all the school policies, especially the transfer instructions. It is even harder for student to make up their mind what major they should concentrate on. Choosing the right courses and making a schedule is another headache job that students have to go through. Students often find it very tough to decide what are the right classes to take that related to their major. It is also stressful to wake up in the morning and be one time for classes. Finally, preparing and taking mid-term and final exams are the most stressful time that student encounter for the entire semester. In a similar case to Jack, my friend, Som, who is a good student at City College, always gets nervous and stays up all night to study for his mid-term and final exams. Since, school requires students to maintain their GPA to a certain point in order for them to stay in school, passing the classes and getting good grades are one of the most concerning issues for a lot of students. In addition to academic stress, students often feel financial pressure. Most of the college students work part-time while attending college. They have more responsibilities than just maintaining their GPA. Paying for their school tuition and textbooks are the big two unavoidable expenses that they have to spend. Students often complain and feel frustrated about how much they have to pay for their textbooks and other materials related to their classes. Besides these expenses, students also have other financial responsibilities as well. Paying the rent, car payments and car insurance are stressful issues that students have to deal with. Like many other college students and myself, my girlfriend has to work two part-time jobs in order for her to have enough money to pay her bills. Buying clothes, movie tickets, gifts for friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ birthdays are other pressures that students have to cop with while they are in school. Base on these expenses, it is pretty obvious that students must have some sort of incomes that they can rely on for the expeneses so that they can service in school and accomplish their dreams. Along with academic and financial worries, students also face personal pressures. For those who have a boyfriend or a girlfriend, they have to deal with their partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and differences. For example, I have a friend who had a boyfriend when she was in college. She had to give up her time to go to a party with her boyfriend in stead of finishing up her assigments. She had to put up with his immature and jealous attitude who wanted her to tell him wherever she went. It was a personal stress for her that she had to put up with her boyfriend while receiving so much pressure from school. Getting along with their family members is a stressful thing to deal with if they live at home with their parents. For some they get homesick and miss their family members if they live far away from home. Another stressful thing for students is achieving their goals. They usually encounter pressure from their parents or relatives when asked when they are going to complete school. They are not sure if their achievements will meet their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation. They afraid that they might not get a good job and make enough money to support themselves after they finish school. College students often encounter pressures and streeful situations while they are in school. Academic, financial and personal stress are not new to Jack, my girlfriend and my friend as well as many other students. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve experienced and are experiencing this pressures while they are working hard trying to make their dreams realized.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The comparison between employer and employee is stressed every time Bounderby meets Stephen Blackpool and the comparison can be clearly seen, as when Bounderby and Blackpool are at the table, BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s half is full of silver china and saucers, while BlackpoolÃ¢â¬â¢s is empty, this shows the power balance between the two-i. e. all the power is in BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, as is the wealth and the control. BlackpoolÃ¢â¬â¢s word is rarely trusted by those in power over BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s and they are so very different in almost all respects, with BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s life taking its own cource with his allegiance with Gradgrind in Parliament, while Blackpool only has Rachel caring for him, as compared to the city he is another nobody down on his luck. The story also shows family bonds through difficult situations, with the major family scenario of the GradgrindÃ¢â¬â¢s the son and daughter are raised by their father in a factual heartless way, even though he does not realise this, he does go on to realise his mistake, with the mother of the family disabled and unable to move around due to sickness, being manipulated by everyone who walks by, as she has no dominance over anything indeed, and her character suggests she agrees with her husband on the factual upbringing of their children, and also shows the strains the family goes through after Louisa marries Mr Bounderby, and Tom gets involved in the bank robbery, and the family has to somehow try to bounce back, but does not manage to succeed with only a neutral ending The other families mentioned are the bond of father and child in Cissy Jupes Tale, the Man and wife in BlackpoolÃ¢â¬â¢s unhappy marriage, and the twist in the story with Mr BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother appearing and e xplaining his upbringing Language Dickens uses a variety of techniques in hard times, mostly descriptive; giving a chance of detail good enough to imagine it, but for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination to be different, repetition gets across the steely characters characteristicsÃ For Louisa he uses a simple vocabulary, using childly words and simple phrases meant with good intention on her behalf, with no academical subtext or complicated phrases, showing that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a good and kind hearted person, but also slightly dim compared to the other main characters The language of Mr Gradgrind is always very well developed, and while the descriptions of him make us see a rigid robot like figure, he does speak intellectually throughout the story Mr Bounderby however is much more rigid in his language and expresses his thoughts using whatÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact instead of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s humane, and this always puts him in a negative light, he may have been Ã¢â¬Ëborn upside downÃ¢â¬â¢ where he would have always had such views, and always acted on factual or instinct data to prove his point The language of tom and Louisa has two stages during the story, at first they talk in only facts, with little feeling or emotion in their words, but occasionally while in private they speak out freely, or as freely as they can, but in the presence of others they stick to their blank expressions and factual sentences During toms elder years he begins to talk more like his father, with a free stroke in his speech and has retained some independence while still being accepted by his father and friends Louisa in her elder years changes little to her younger equivalent and stays rigid and factual, showing a feeling of repressed anger inside her Mrs Gradgrind is a poorly woman and her language reflects that, being incomplete, with words missing from sentences and grammatical errors if not for which she would sound like Mr Gradgrind, but throughout her brief appearances she keeps her grumbling simple and unimportant The language used by Blitzer is the product of MrÃ¢â¬â¢s Gradgrind and BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings and shows the heartless product of their ideal. in the end they both regret their schooling of Blitzer and realise their wrong, but only too late for some The other controversial language used is that of Mr Sleary the Circus leader, who uses a range of bizarre phrases in between his sentences and makes his appearance misunderstood and diverse compared to the other charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ Conclusion So in conclusion with my previous statements, as listed above, the novel Hard times has a monotone view of Victorian society With all characters at a set point being either extremely good or eminently bad, in character and in appearance, much of which suggests that the focus of the story is based solemnly on interaction between characters, and no room for backdrops has been spared from steel bins burning in the winter cold, glum industrial streets and houses varying from basic to lavish all showing the contrast between the rich striving to change society the poor striving to stay out of trouble, and those who strive to be rich
Saturday, September 14, 2019
1. Definitions a. Metabolism- The process by whichc a living organism takes energy from its surroundings and uses it to sustain itself, develop and grow. b. Photosynthesis-the process by which an organism uses the energy from the sun to produce its own food c. Autotrophs- organisms that are able to produce their own food d. Heterotrophs- organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain it from other organisms e. respiration Ã¢â¬â the process by which food is converted into usable energy for life functions f. homeostasis Ã¢â¬â the tendency of living organisms to control or regulate changes in their internal environment g. diffusion Ã¢â¬â the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration h. osmosis Ã¢â¬â the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane i. osmoconformer Ã¢â¬â and organisms that allows its internal concentration of salts to change in order to match the external concentration of salts in the surrounding water j. Osmo regulator Ã¢â¬â an organism that regulates its internal concentration of salts k. Poikilotherm- an organism whose body temperature changes with its surrounding environment l. ectotherm Ã¢â¬â an organism whose body temperature is controlled by its surrounding environment m. homeotherm- an animal that maintains a controlled internal body temperature using its own heating and cooling of mechanisms n. Endotherm- an animal whose internal body temperature is a result of internal sources of heat o. a sexual reproduction Ã¢â¬â reproduction accomplished by a single organism p. sexual reproduction Ã¢â¬â reproduction that involves the union of gametes from two organisms: a male and a female q. binomial nomenclature Ã¢â¬â identifying an organism by a genus and species name 2. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids 3. oxygen levels would be lower at night than during the day 4. no, they must feed on extra material made by photos synthesizing plants 5. no, both groups containing organisms like that 6. population 7. water will travel through osmosis to the outside 8. the body fluids would change. There would be more concentration ofÃ dissolved substances in the body 9. no. They could have warm blood if their environment is warm 10. yes 11. no 12. the plant from the cutting 13. the cell with 24 chromosomes 14. the cell with 12 chromosomes 15. yes
Friday, September 13, 2019
Analysis On Bharati Mukherjee English Literature Essay In turn, Mukherjee lays claim to an America that is both constantly transforming, and transformed by, the new immigrant. As the title of her short stories collection Ã¢â¬Å"The Middle ManÃ¢â¬ and Other Stories (1988) suggests, each protagonist from a different part of the world functions as a mediator of cultures, negotiating the Ã¢â¬Å"two-way transformationÃ¢â¬ (Mukherjee, Ã¢â¬Å"AUPÃ¢â¬ 141) of either an expatriate or immigrant experience in America. That the collection won the National Book Critics Circle Award undeniably affirms the appeal of such a Maximalist narrative strategy professing to give an equal voice to each immigrant group. On further analysis, however, it is clear that MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of a fluid American (trans)national identity influenced by diversity is ultimately predicated on the foregrounding of differences. Despite MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s call for America to go beyond multiculturalism in its treatment of new immigrants, her own postcolo nial immigrant subjectivity-inevitably shaped by her elite British and American educational background-remains aligned with white hegemony, which continues to hierarchize its immigrants on the bases of ethnicity, class and gender. After all, Mukherjee specifically reveals in Jasmine that Ã¢â¬Å"[e]ducated people are interested in differenceÃ¢â¬ (33). Keeping MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s explicitly stated literary agendas in mind, this chapter will attempt to examine the ironies in MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s postcolonial subjectivity in the novel Jasmine and the two short stories Ã¢â¬Å"A WifeÃ¢â¬â¢s StoryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Tenant,Ã¢â¬ both from Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThe MiddlemanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Other StoriesÃ¢â¬ collection. Radical alterity of India From the vantage point of a successful female intellectual in America, Mukherjee disavows India precisely because its repressive patriarchy severely limits womenÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities in life, insofar as the sanctity of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives is largel y disregarded and constantly endangered. However, Ã¢â¬Å"feudal compliance was [precisely] what still kept India an unhealthy and backward nationÃ¢â¬ (Mukherjee, Jasmine 77). This necessitates that MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s heroines break the vicious cycle of being locked into arranged marriages that technically seal their fates with violent subjugation. In MukherjeeÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Tenant,Ã¢â¬ MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Ã¢â¬Å"[a]ll Indian men are wife beatersÃ¢â¬ (99) may be an exaggeration, but the more disturbing revelation is that Ã¢â¬Å"the groomÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was absolute tyrant of the householdÃ¢â¬ (Mukherjee, Jasmine 147) in India. Indeed, generations of Indian women have also been physically abusing female subordinates deemed to have transgressed patriarchal norms. Yet, when meted out to any woman who defends or is interested in the pursuit of an education, such domestic violence is clearly a violation of basic human rights, unjustified to an America t hat champions the inalienable rights of every individual to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. In Jasmine, JyotiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother suffers strikes from her husband because she supports JyotiÃ¢â¬â¢s aspiration to continue her studies and become a doctor. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"A WifeÃ¢â¬â¢s Story,Ã¢â¬ PannaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is beaten by her illiterate mother-in-law because she enrolled in French class at the Alliance FranÃ §aise. The fact that even these Brahmin wives are not spared the rod underscores that physical violence against women cuts across the entire caste system, denying all women personal and professional progress. These scenarios emphatically portray the radical alterity of India, insofar as it becomes utterly incomprehensible to Americans who privilege individualism and gender egalitarianism. Aligned with these values, Mukherjee attempts to consolidate her status approval from the American market by positioning herself Ã¢â¬Å"not as [an] advantaged in side[r] of Asian culture but as similarly disadvantaged as [her] Anglo readers in finding that Asian component bizarre, distasteful, and difficult to comprehendÃ¢â¬ (Shirley Lim, Ã¢â¬Å"AGÃ¢â¬ 161) as well. As Mukherjee reveals, it is necessary to give Jasmine Ã¢â¬Å"a society that was so regressive, traditional, so caste-bound, genderist, that she could discard itÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"IMCÃ¢â¬ 19) in exchange for a rebirth in America. In exposing the oppression inherent in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s patriarchal structure, Mukherjee situates her decolonizing impulse as one that embraces emancipation in America, a land that seemingly affords women endless opportunities to attain self-actualization.